In Egypt, the media sector and public discourse have long been a battleground for the nation’s business and political elite. In one way or another, the individuals and corporations in control of the nation’s media are just as important as the content of the news itself. The media sector must therefore be contextualised in terms of its ownership and key power players, if public information is to be properly understood.

In general, Egypt’s media sector can be split into three categories: state-owned media, opposition publications, and privately owned papers. A variety of actors exist across these categories, many of whom distinctly belong to one, while some are more fluid in terms of definition.