Apart from the complexity of banking transfers, corruption is often another subject high on the list of worries of those who want to invest in Iran. Having long called for foreign investments to shore up the Iranian economy – and crucially create jobs for the one million plus young graduates who enter the job market every year – the Iranian government is taking measures to improve the business climate.

One of its starting points is customs reforms. For a long time, customs have been infamous for a lack of transparency, forgeries and petty corruption. One of the reasons for this lack of transparency may be the complex web of special free zones, special industrial zones and special port zones that have been set up in the aftermath of the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988) to boost trade and reconstruction.

This created so many different entry points and specific regulations – about fourteen different procedures, overseen by different authorities - that it only made the bureaucratic process more cumbersome. Shadow Governance Intel considers what efforts are being taken to remedy this vulnerability in Iran.