The use of intimidation has increased during Sisi’s term. The reasons behind this have, in part, to do with the reallocation of resources amongst elites.
The IGA is pursuing a strategy of reconciliation with criminalised elites from the former regime in order to recoup parts of Egypt’s lost wealth. While this policy aligns with the country’s pressing fiscal needs, investors should pay attention to the effects that political rehabilitation may have on the workings of the deep state under President Sisi.
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The UAE has tried to build a reputation as an international centre of trade and commerce. In light of this, it has become apparent that its approach to bankruptcy and corporate insolvency has been inadequate.
Although the 2011 revolution removed Mubarak from power and briefly ushered in a period of Muslim Brotherhood rule, in 2016 the old social and political elite have unequivocally consolidated their position in Egypt’s political system.