Politicised organised crime is well hidden in Egypt, but the weak imposition of effective law enforcement outside of major cities facilitates the growth of informal economies and entrepreneurial gangs.
Confrontation between one of Egypt's high-profile businessmen and the Central Bank is exposing a rift between private interests and the official strategies of the state.
Without a source of dependable income, the political independence of an Emirate is beholden to its creditor. Layers of socially constructed understandings and obligation determine elite interaction, where relationship hierarchies can be replicated on the macro-level of state, or the micro-level of family.
Ministries have manipulated legal and political institutions to create highly independent decision-making bodies with almost zero oversight, facilitating large-scale embezzlement of state finances