The resignation and arrest of then-Agriculture Minister Salah el-Din Mahmoud Helal in September 2015 highlighted the manipulation of political office for personal gain in Egypt.
The Suez Canal is an emblematic symbol of Egypt's role in global commerce. It was therefore predictable for el-Sisi to announce an extension to the canal as an election priority – but the promise has yet to materialise.
The on-going challenge for the UAE remains how to respond proactively to the challenges of low oil prices. Reforms are underway, driven by consolidation of elite control.