Having ruled Kazakhstan for more than 25 years, President Nazarbayev has kept a close network of loyalists and allies within strategic government agencies. However, constant reshuffling has prevented any one person or group from gaining too much influence – thereby limiting opposition opportunities.
Since Putin’s rise to power, his inner circle has largely remained unchanged. Many of the President’s key allies hail from the siloviki, ozero cooperative, as well as his former allies from St Petersburg and personal associates.
On 7 June, Russia's State Duma passed a new bill that requires companies to disclose information on their beneficiaries at the request of the authorities. Passage of the bill was reported as part of the government’s efforts to improve economic transparency and decrease the use of offshore holdings.