Free Article
Greece is under pressure to embark on a privatisation programme to help feed financial stability. Despite rhetoric that the country is committed to a privatisation programme, the Greek government is showing signs of hesitation. With investment opportunities to be had, risks still abound for those that do not have the time or patience to navigate negotiations.
Although Romania has been an EU member for 10 years, the degree of transparency and privatisation of its energy sector fall well below expected EU standards. As a result, Romania’s energy sector remains largely opaque and politically exposed.
Central Asia has acted as a region through which Turkey has sought to channel its soft power, namely through the Gülen Movement. However, because of the AKP-Gülen split, Turkey’s involvement in Central Asia is in decline.
Free Article
The energy sector in Turkey not only plays a vital economic role, but it is also a tool for political interests. The overwhelming influence of the state in this sector has allowed the government to utilise it to reinforce the loyalty of its surrounding informal networks.
Russia is utilising its shared ethno-religious background to leverage Serbia’s current period of self-reflection, and uncertainty regarding with whom (i.e. East or West) its future stands to prosper.
Reconstruction in Turkey and northern Syria are becoming potential investment opportunities for the AKP-controlled public housing institution, TOKİ. These construction projects, that could be partly financed by the EU, will also inevitably benefit Erdogan’s ‘constructocracy’.
The AKP has bet on gold exploitation and commercialization to avoid an oncoming banking crisis. Turkey currently is the 4th world consumer of gold.
Free Article
Behind the AKP rhetoric about energy development, there has been an accumulation of power in Erdoğan’s inner-circle. The effective control of the energy sector, especially the natural gas distribution, has become an electoral tool for the AKP.